Industry
GDP composition of sector and labour force by occupation in the form of any component to economy. The green, red, and blue components of the colours of the countries represent the percentages for the agriculture, industry, and services sectors, respectively.

Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.[1] The major source of revenue of a group or company is the indicator of its relevant industry.[2] When a large group has multiple sources of revenue generation, it is considered to be working in different industries. Manufacturing industry became a key sector of production and labour in European and North American countries during the Industrial Revolution, upsetting previous mercantile and feudal economies. This came through many successive rapid advances in technology, such as the production of steel and coal.

Following the Industrial Revolution, possibly a third of the world's economic output are derived that is from manufacturing industries. Many developed countries and many developing/semi-developed countries (China, India etc.) depend significantly on manufacturing industry. Industries, the countries they reside in, and the economies of those countries are interlinked in a complex web of interdependence.

Industrial development

Optimized logistics have enabled the rapid development of industry. Here is a thermal oxidizer during the industrial shipping process.
A factory, a traditional symbol of the industrial development (a cement factory in Kunda, Estonia)

The Industrial Revolution led to the development of factories for large-scale production with consequent changes in society.[3] Originally the factories were steam-powered, but later transitioned to electricity once an electrical grid was developed. The mechanized assembly line was introduced to assemble parts in a repeatable fashion, with individual workers performing specific steps during the process. This led to significant increases in efficiency, lowering the cost of the end process. Later automation was increasingly used to replace human operators. This process has accelerated with the development of the computer and the robot.

Deindustrialisation

Colin Clark's sector model of an economy undergoing technological change. In later stages, the Quaternary sector of the economy grows.

Historically certain manufacturing industries have gone into a decline due to various economic factors, including the development of replacement technology or the loss of competitive advantage. An example of the former is the decline in carriage manufacturing when the automobile was mass-produced.

A recent trend has been the migration of prosperous, industrialized nations towards a post-industrial society. This is manifested by an increase in the service sector at the expense of manufacturing, and the development of an information-based economy, the so-called informational revolution. In a post-industrial society, manufacturers relocate to more profitable locations through a process of off-shoring.

Measurements of manufacturing industries outputs and economic effect are not historically stable. Traditionally, success has been measured in the number of jobs created. The reduced number of employees in the manufacturing sector has been assumed to result from a decline in the competitiveness of the sector, or the introduction of the lean manufacturing process.

Related to this change is the upgrading of the quality of the product being manufactured. While it is possible to produce a low-technology product with low-skill labour, the ability to manufacture high-technology products well is dependent on a highly skilled staff.

Society

An industrial society can be defined in many ways. Today, industry is an important part of most societies and nations. A government must have some kind of industrial policy, regulating industrial placement, industrial pollution, financing and industrial labour.

Industrial labour

A female industrial worker amidst heavy steel semi-products (KINEX BEARINGS, Byt?a, Slovakia, c. 1995-2000)

In an industrial society, industry employs a major part of the population. This occurs typically in the manufacturing sector. A labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and other working conditions. The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members (rank and file members) and negotiates labour contracts with employers. This movement first rose among industrial workers.

War

The assembly plant of the Bell Aircraft Corporation (Wheatfield, New York, United States, 1944) producing P-39 Airacobra fighters

The Industrial Revolution changed warfare, with mass-produced weaponry and supplies, machine-powered transportation, mobilization, the total war concept and weapons of mass destruction. Early instances of industrial warfare were the Crimean War and the American Civil War, but its full potential showed during the world wars. See also military-industrial complex, arms industries, military industry and modern warfare.

List of countries by industrial output

20 largest countries by industrial output according to IMF and CIA World 200book, 2016
Economy
Countries by industrial output in 2016 (billions in USD)
(01)  China
(--)  European Union
(02)  United States
(03)  Japan
(04)  Germany
(05)  India
(06)  South Korea
(07)  United Kingdom
(08)  France
(09)  Italy
(10)  Russia
(11)  Canada
(12)  Brazil
(13)  Indonesia
(14)  Australia
(15)  Mexico
(16)  Spain
(17)  Saudi Arabia
(18)  Turkey
(19)  Taiwan
(20)  Poland

The twenty largest countries by industrial output in 2016, according to the IMF and CIA World Factbook.

20 Largest Countries by industrial output according to UNCTAD at 2005 constant prices and exchange rates, 2015 [4]
Economy
Top 20 countries by industrial output in 2015 (millions in 2005 constant USD and exchange rates)
(01)  United States
(02)  China
(03)  Japan
(04)  Germany
(05)  India
(06)  United Kingdom
(07)  South Korea
(08)  France
(09)  Canada
(10)  Italy
(11)  Mexico
(12)  Russia
(13)  Brazil
(14)  Australia
(15)  Saudi Arabia
(16)  Spain
(17)  Taiwan
(18)  Indonesia
(19)  Turkey
(20)  Poland

See also

References

Bibliography

  • Krahn, Harvey J., and Graham S. Lowe. Work, Industry, and Canadian Society. Second ed. Scarborough, Ont.: Nelson Canada, 1993. xii, 430 p. ISBN 0-17-603540-0

External links

  • Media related to Industries at Wikimedia Commons
  • Quotations related to industry at Wikiquote

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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